นิงิริซูชิ (Nigiri Sushi) เป็นซูชิพบได้บ่อยในภัตตาคาร ซูชิจะมีลักษณะข้าวเป็นก้อนรูปวงรีแล้ววางเนื้อปลาดิบ ปลาหมึก ฯลฯ ไว้ข้างบน อาจจะใส่วาซาบิเล็กน้อย หรือตกแต่งด้วยสาหร่ายทะเลก็ได้ ซูชิแบบนี้เป็นที่นิยมมากที่สุด
มากิซูชิ (Maki Sushi) มีวิธีทำ 3 แบบด้วยกัน
(3) ห่อเป็นรูปกรวย เรียกว่า แคลิฟอร์เนียเทมากิ
ชิราชิซูชิ (Chirashi Sushi) เป็นการจัดปลาดิบ ปลาหมึก กุ้ง ผัก ฯลฯ ที่หั่นเป็นชิ้นๆ วางเรียงบนข้าวที่ใส่อยู่ในกล่อง
โอชิซูชิ (Oshi Sushi) หรือรูปแบบคันไซจากเมืองโอซาก้า เอาข้าวมาอัดลงในแม่พิมพ์รูปสี่เหลี่ยมตามยาวหั่นขนาดพอดีให้รับประทานเป็นคำๆ แล้ววางเนื้อปลาไว้ด้านบน
Sushi in Japan
The earliest reference to sushi in Japan appeared in 718 in the Yōrō Code (養老律令 Yōrō-ritsuryō). As an example of tax paid by actual items, it is written down as "雑鮨五斗 (about 64 liters of zakonosushi or zatsunosushi?)". However, there is no way to know what this "sushi" was or even how it was pronounced. By the 9th and 10th century "鮨" and "鮓" are read as "sushi". This "sushi" was similar to today's Narezushi.
For almost the next 800 years, until the early 19th century, sushi slowly changed and the Japanese cuisine changed as well. The Japanese started eating three meals a day, rice was boiled instead of steamed, and most important of all, rice vinegar was invented. While sushi continued to be produced by fermentation of fish with rice, the time of fermentation was gradually decreased and the rice used began to be eaten along with the fish. In the Muromachi Period (1336 to 1573), the process of producing Oshizushi was gradually developed where in the fermentation process was abandoned and vinegar was used. In the Azuchi-Momoyama period (1573 - 1603), namanare was invented. A 1603 Japanese-Portuguese dictionary has an entry for namanrina sushi, literally half-made sushi. The namanare was fermented for a shorter period than the narezushi and possibly marinated with rice vinegar. It still had the distinctive smell of narezushi.
The smell of narezushi was likely one of the reasons for shortening and eventually skipping the fermentation process. It is commonly described as "a cross between blue cheese, fish, and rice vinegar". A story from Konjaku Monogatarishū written in early 12th century makes it clear that it was not an attractive smell, even if it tasted good: In the early 18th century, oshizushi was perfected in Osaka and it came to Edo by the middle of 18th century. These sushi were sold to customers, but because they still required a little fermentation time, stores hung a notice and posters to customers on when to come for a sushi. Sushi was also sold near a park during a hanami period and a theater as a type of Bento. Inarizushi was sold along oshizushi. Makizushi and Chirashizushi also became popular in Edo period.
There were three famous sushi restaurants in Edo, Matsunozushi (松之鮨), Yoheizushi (興兵衛鮓), and Kenukizushi (けぬき寿し) but there were thousands more sushi restaurants. They were established in a span of barely twenty years at the start of the 19th century. Nigirizushi was an instant hit and it spread through Edo like wildfire. In the book Morisadamanko (守貞謾稿) published in 1852, the author writes that for a cho (100 meters by 100 meters or 10,000 square meters) section of Edo there were one or two sushi restaurants, but that only one soba restaurant could be found in 1 or 2 cho. This means that there were nearly 2 sushi restaurants for every soba restaurant.
These early nigirizushi were not identical to today's varieties. Fish meat was marinated in soy sauce or vinegar or heavily salted so there was no need to dip into soy sauce. Some fish was cooked before it was put onto a sushi. This was partly out of necessity as there were no refrigerators. Each piece was also larger, almost the size of two pieces of today's sushi.
The advent of modern refrigeration allowed sushi made of raw fish to reach more consumers than ever before. The late 20th century saw sushi gaining in popularity all over the world.
info credit: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_sushi